問題 1

TO: Morris Santini
FROM: Chie Minami
DATE: October 17
SUBJECT: Contract

Thank you for sending the contract for the Jones account. However, the copy I received did not include the revision I requested concerning the delivery deadline. In case there is a misunderstanding, I would like to make it clear in this e-mail that the initial delivery date of January 10 was changed to January 5 during our final negotiations on October 12. As far as I can see, this is the only revision that needs to be made to conclude the agreement, and hereby request that you send us a new contract with the correct delivery deadline. We will sign and return the contract as soon as we receive the amended version from you.



企業間で取引を始めるにあたっては、取引内容、納期、予算、支払い日などを明記した契約書を交わします。まず、草案(draft)と呼ばれる原案を作り、それに何度か修正を加えて最終版を作成します。この最終版は2 部用意し、契約を結ぶ両企業の代表者の署名を入れ、それぞれが1部ずつ保管します。





問題 2

July 17

Ms. Patricia Sinclair
254 Interlaken Avenue
Seattle, WA 98203

Dear Ms. Sinclair:

Thank you for your order of July 14. Of the three items you ordered, the two-drawer file cabinet (Item # 34-210) and handy desk vacuum (Item # 5202) were shipped on July 15. However, the miniature easel (Item # 4277) is currently out of stock. We have contacted the manufacturer to back-order and have been told that the item will become available around the end of this month. Would you like to wait? Or would you like to cancel your order for this item? We charge credit cards or issue invoices only when items are shipped, so you have not been charged for the easel.

Please let us know what you would like us to do. We sincerely appreciate your patience and look forward to hearing from you.

Noel Mitchell
Customer Service
Sunshine Offices




問題 1

To: All store staff
From: Adriana Loris, Store Manager
Date: December 8
Subject: Clearance sale

Now that our year-end inventory is complete, we’re ready for our annual clearance sale. The sale will run for a week from Sunday. There is a considerable amount of surplus stock of the SnoWiz line of ski wear—everything in the line will be sold for half price except for the after-ski boots which will be marked down 30%. The winter sports season is still in full swing and all of you are encouraged to recommend the line to customers during the sale so we can clear as much stock as possible while the sale is on. Sale prices for other merchandise will vary with some items going for as low as 70% off. As usual, sunscreens and cosmetics will not be discounted.







問題 2


To: All staff
From: Bruno Smith
Subject: Walk for Pets
Date: April 20

This is to let you know that the annual Walk for Pets will be held on May 15 from 8:30 A.M. to 3 P.M. at Oceanview Park. In addition to the usual adult walk, there will be a half-mile mini walk for 5 to 12-year-olds. Entry in the adult walk is $30 per person and $50 dollars per couple; entry in the miniwalk is $10 per child. We will have a barbecue at the park after the walk. Food will be provided but everyone is requested to bring drinks.

Half of the proceeds from the event will go toward Home for Pets, a foster home facility for abandoned pets, and the remainder will be divided among various animal welfare associations. Everyone, come out and walk for the welfare of our furry friends!




問題 1

Perth WA

Mr. Jonathan Watford
Commonwealth Industries
17 Bridge Street, West Perth WA

January 15

Dear Mr. Watford,

Thank you for your company’s ongoing support of Inglis Museum. It is only through the aid of corporate donors such as yourself that we are able to continue to serve the city of Perth as an art organization.

It is once again time for our annual fund drive. This year’s contributions will mainly go toward repair costs of the Patrona Wing that was badly damaged in December’s storm.

To make a contribution, please fill out the enclosed form and send it to the museum accompanied by a check. As a patron of the museum, all Commonwealth Industries employees will be entitled to half off on admission fees.

Very truly yours,

Gayle Meisner
Inglis Museum



欧米の企業は、芸術関連団体や慈善団体、非営利組織への支援や寄付を、日本の企業よりも活発に行います。特に公共意識の高いアメリカでは、企業だけでなく、富裕層などが進んで寄付活動を行います。世界有数の大企業では単発的な寄付ではなく、「基金」を作り、医療、教育などの支援に当てています。テストでは、大口の寄付(generous donation)をした人へ賛辞を贈るスピーチや、図書館、博物館、研究機関などが地元の有力企業に寄付金のお願いをする文書などが出題されるので、関連語句を覚えて、日本ではそれほど身近ではないこの分野に関する出題に強くなりましょう。

















必要・不必要を表現する英語の形容詞は沢山あります。たとえば necessary、needed、required、indispensable、などなど。何がどう違うのかと混乱しがちですが、その混乱の元は各単語を必要性や重要性の「度合い」で比較しようとしているからかも知れません。




英単語 otherwise には「さもないと」「その他の点では」「それとは違った風に」という、一見すると意味が全然違って見える3つの意味があります。

otherwise が文中でどのような意味で使われているかは、文脈次第という側面が強く、使い分け方が身につくまでは判断に苦労します。それだけに、いったん把握してしまえば幅広い場面で使える便利な表現でもあります。




問題 2


From: Grace Townsend, Supervisor
To: All Townsend factory staff
Date: February 10
Re: Change in shift hours

In compliance with new company policy set forth to foster a better working environment, factory shift hours will be changed on an experimental basis for six months starting March 15. The morning shift will be moved up one hour to begin at 8 A.M. and end at 4 P.M., the day shift will be from 4 P.M. to 12 A.M., and the night shift will be from 12 A.M. to 8 A.M. Although the beginning and ending times of shifts will change, actual hours worked will remain the same, which means that wages will not be affected. If you have any questions regarding these changes, feel free to contact me at any time.